I've just finished reading Jerry Brotton's fascinating A History of the World in Twelve Maps (Allen Lane: 2012). I'll tell you about three.
The first is the Hereford mappamundi. It is the largest of its kind to have survived intact for nearly 800 years, and shows what the world looked like to a thirteenth century Christian. Made from an animal skin it measures 1.59 metres high and 1.34 metres wide. The world is circular and divided by the Mediterranean into Europe, Asia and Africa. East is at the top.
The Old Testament scholar John Barton, in his Understanding Old Testament Ethics (Westminster John Knox, 2003, pp. 138-140), describes the moral philosophy of the 8th Century BCE prophet Isaiah:
Isaiah… begins with a picture of the world in which God is the creator and preserver of all things and occupies by right the supreme position over all that he has made.